Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Use your camera as a telescope

A camera can be a small telescope. It collects lights, it has a larger aperture than your eye. A lens is a 

As I wrote in a previous article: How to photograph stars and constellations, you can use any camera to photograph the sky. You should be realistic and understand that you are photographing mostly wide-filed photos. Entire constellations or large objects with a telephoto lens. The photos will help you see more stars, observe their different colors, and even to find deep sky objects such as clusters, nebulas and even galaxies.

A DSLR is recommended and the better your lens the better the results but even with a compact camera it is possible to get nice results.

Photos can be taken from anywhere but to avoid light pollution it is best to go to darkest as possible places. No need to mention that a sturdy tripod is a must.

The major problem of photographing stars is that the earth rotate and the stars are smudged from dot to lines. You can use this rotation to produce great star trails photos but our aim in this specific article is to better see the stars and faint objects.

The rule of thumb is that the longest exposure should not be more than 500/focal-length. For example, if you use a 28mm lens you can expose for 18 seconds without noticing much smudging. These number is correct for Full-Frame cameras. If you are using an APS camera, you should adjust by the crop factor (mostly 1.5) so 18 seconds becomes just 12. If you are using a telephoto lens you will have shorter exposures time.

So what to do? Use higher ISO, 400 800 or even 1600 depends on your specific model and open the aperture as possible.

Focusing is another important matter. Manual focusing is a must. Try to find a bright star and use LiveView to better focus. If you are not sure, check your photo after a single exposure, zoom into it and adjust the focus as needed.

A release cable/remote is also necessary to prevent the shake caused by pressing the shutter. If you do not have a remote/release cable use the self-photo feature to add 2 seconds delay before each photograph.

To save time I take the first photo with a very high ISO (3200 or 1600), short exposure and without noise reduction. After I set the composition as I like I use a lower ISO and the longest possible exposure. Usually, I use the built-in "log exposure noise reduction" but it can be done later in a software if you take one or two photos of the same exposure time with the lens cap on. 

To take your photos to the next level you will need a tracker device. The tracker is pointed to the polar star (or to the relevant area in the southern hemisphere) and rotates in the opposite direction to the earth, thus eliminating the smudging and enables longer exposures.  I am using the Ioptron tracker, if you are handy you can build your own device (look for instructions to build a "barn door tracker").

If you go for a tracker notice that there are models with additional small finderscope which will give you much better results and you should buy that model. also notice that some models have a 3/8" mount while most tripods have a 1/4" mount, so a small adapter might be required (It is very cheap adapter). 

Using the tracker is simple you put it on a tripod, points it to the north star, use the finderscope for exact alignment (I use a small app for my smartphone to do this - Polar scope finder, there are also free apps for this purpose). Put the ball-head on the tracker (carefully, not to move the tracker) and point the camera to the area you want to photograph. From time to time check that the tracker still points to the correct place.

Here are some examples, all photos are 30second exposure. the Pleiades cluster - M45 - is a nice object for 300mm lens.
 Here is the same photo without tracking, the difference is clear.
 The double cluster in Perseus.
 The double cluster at Perseus
הוסף כיתוב
 The beehive cluster (M44) at Cancer.
 The beehive cluster (M44) at Cancer.
 The beehive cluster (M44) at Cancer.
 The great dog with Sirius, the brightest star.
The great dog - Canis Major
The great dog - Canis Major
 Here is the same photo of Canis Major without tracking. Since the focal length is wider there isn't much smudging but there is still a considerable amount.
The great dog - Canis Major
The great dog - Canis Major
Orion constellation. With blue Rigel (bottom right) and orange Betelgeuse (Top left), Orion belt in the middle and even a hint of Orion Nebula (m42) 
Orion constellation
Orion constellation

Tuesday, November 15, 2016


From time to time, you hear news about a big and bright moon that has not been seen in the last ten, twenty, or even a hundred years. Such moons have the nickname, "supermoon". Here are some facts and information about supermoons. All numbers and times relate to the supermoon of November 14,2016.

What is a supermoon?
A supermoon is a term for a full moon that is near perigee. The perigee is the point in the moon's orbit that is closest to earth. The moon is full once a month and also at perigee once a month. From time to time, the moon is both full and near perigee around the same time and the result is a somewhat larger and brighter moon, a.k.a. "supermoon".

What will be the distance to the current supermoon?
The closest distance to the moon varies each month and averages around 357,000 kilometers. The earth's distance from the current supermoon  will be 356,511 kilometers (227,118 miles). This distance is the distance between the earth's and moon's centers. The exact times (UTC) are:
  • Moon at Perigee 13:24 
  • Full Moon 15:54 
  • The moonrise varies for different locations.
Is the change of the moon's size significant?
The difference between a distant moon ( >400,000 km) and a close moon is indeed significant and can reach 40,000 km which are 14% of the distance. This difference has an impact on the apparent size of the moon and 14% is is the number you will probably see in the news; however, I think they should calculate the difference based on the average distance of the moon, which is just half of that.  
The best (and only) way to see that difference is to take two photos and compare them. See the image below for example:

The smallest distance since 1948
Headlines such as "Nearest moon since 1948" are factually correct but are meaningless. As mentioned above the distance is between the earth's and moon's centers. The distance of the moon to a specific observer on earth is different and changes throughout the night as the earth revolves. 
Since 1948, there have been many others supermoons, some of them only 100 km farther than this supermoon. But if an observer on earth sees the moon before or after the exact perigee, this 100 km is negligible to the change due to earth's rotation (which is 6300 km about the same as earth's radii, in just a few hours). Such small changes of 0.1% have no effect on the moon's apparent size. It might be that for a given observer in a given location, there was a nearer moon after 1948.

Why is the moon orange or particularly large when it rises?
The red rising moon is due to the atmosphere and the big rising moon is an illusion. Read more about the large red moon here. Both phenomena are not related to the moon being a supermoon.

Will I see any difference in the size of the moon?
Probably not. If you go out and look at the full moon you, will see that it is very bright. Maybe you'll notice it is brighter than the previous evening's moon, but that is true for every full moon. To see a change in the moon's size, you will have to compare the moon to something. To what? It is more or less the same as the day before and certainly one can't recall how a very far away moon looked several months ago. If you want to compare the difference in the size of the apparent moon, you need patience. Take some pictures, wait patiently for seven months (When then the full moon will be distant) and then take more photos.

What about the brightness of the moon?
The brightness of the moon is a whole new ball game. The moon's apparent size depends only on its distance, but the brightness depends on other factors as well. So if the news reports about the distance are at least credible to some extent, the reports on the brightness are almost always completely wrong.

The two most obvious factors that affect the brightness of the moon are the moon's distance from the earth and also the earth's distance from the sun. As the two of them are the smallest possible, the brightness increases. The earth is close to the sun at the beginning of January, which is part of the reasons why this November's supermoon arrived the news.

Are there more important factors to the brightness of the moon?
Yes, there are more, and the most important of is the phase angle, which relates to the distance of the moon (in degrees) from the ecliptic. The farther the moon, the less bright it will be. For the current supermoon, the moon is more than 5 degrees from the ecliptic so it will not be so bright after all.

When will the moon be the brightest?
Suppose we have a full moon at perigee (closest to earth), we assume that the earth is at perihelion (closest to the sun), and we assume that it is also just on the ecliptic. In this situation, the moon would be at its brightest. But under these conditions, we would be in the middle of a very deep lunar eclipse, which is a great event to observe, but the moon is not seen at all. For this reason, the moon has a theoretical maximum brightness limit, but that limit can never be observed.

When will be the brightest moon that can be observed?
Think again about the conditions in the previous section. The only compromise that can be done is that the moon will not be full, but just a little before or after (a difference of few hours) which means that the moon is as close as possible to earth, the earth is as close as possible to the sun, and the moon is almost full. This is just before or after a full lunar eclipse.

When is the next lunar eclipse with these conditions?
The last supermoon eclipse was January 9,2001, and the next time will be an eclipse on December 12, 2114. The brightest supermoon between 1800-2200 will be on January 3, 2151, when the earth is almost at perihelion. These dates are from the book, "More Astronomical Morsels" by Jean Meeus.

So what is all the fuss about?
As usual, much ado about nothing. But if such news will make people go out and observe the moon, so be it. The full moon and especially the rising of the moon are always an experience. Take a look for yourself in the video attached!

What other things you recommend we observe?
The moon is always interesting to observe. Even a small pair of binoculars will show many details on its surface, which change daily depending on the phase of the moon. Eclipses are always interesting, and conjunctions of the moon and planets or bright stars are interesting. Actually, one day after this supermoon, on November 15, 20161, the moon will cover the star Aldebaran in Taurus. This occultation will be visible to observers in Southeast Asia.

More questions?
Write them in the comments and I'll be happy to answer!

Monday, November 7, 2016

Carnival of Space #482

Hello and welcome to a fresh and exciting "Carnival of Space".

Here are the articles from our contributors:

From Universe Today:
From BlastingNews:

From LinksThroughSpace (This is the 2nd article in a series!):
  • From 2014 to 2016 I visited 2 separate prehistoric rock art sites in Morocco. I went to do a research on a possible connection between astronomy and prehistoric rock art. This article relates my adventure in ancient astronomy. Please read my series of 4 articles on Archaeoastronomy and the prehistoric rock art site that i studied. This is 2/4: Village of Ait Ouazik, Southern Morocco and the village of Oukaimeden, Atlas Mountains, Morocco. 

From Planetaria:
From NextBigFuture
  • The new Long March 5 rocket launched successfully on Thursday. The rocket could be used to support a Chinese space station and send an uncrewed mission to Mars. The new Long March 5 rocket launched successfully from the Wenchang Space Launch Center. The rocket measures 187 feet, making it the largest produced by China. It can carry 25 tons of payload into low-Earth orbit. The rocket carried a satellite that will be used to test a variety of technologies, from observing space debris to electric propulsion.
  • On October 5th 2016, Ranga Dias and Isaac F. Silvera of Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University released the first experimental evidence that solid metallic hydrogen has been synthesized in the laboratory. It took 495 GPa pressure to create. The sample is being held in the cryostat in liquid nitrogen. Atomic metallic hydrogen, if metastable at ambient pressure and temperature could be used as the most powerful chemical rocket fuel, as the atoms recombine to form molecular hydrogen. This light-weight high-energy density material would revolutionize rocketry, allowing single-stage rockets to enter orbit and chemically fueled rockets to explore our solar system. To transform solid molecular hydrogen to metallic hydrogen requires extreme high pressures.
  • Harvard researchers have studied and observed solid hydrogen under pressure at low temperatures. With increasing pressure we observe changes in the sample, going from transparent, to black, to a reflective metal, the latter studied at a pressure of 495 GPa. They have measured the reflectance as a function of wavelength in the visible spectrum finding values as high as 0.90 from the metallic hydrogen. They have fit the reflectance using a Drude free electron model to determine the plasma frequency of 30.1 eV at T= 5.5 K, with a corresponding electron carrier density of 6.7x10^23 particles/cm3 , consistent with theoretical estimates. The properties are those of a metal. Solid metallic hydrogen has been produced in the laboratory. * they have made some metallic hydrogen and have it in a cryostat in liquid nitrogen * they might leave it under pressure and let it warm to room temperature or they could keep it cold and release the pressure * they are planning to test for high temperature superconductivity
  • The telescope element of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the largest space telescope ever constructed, stands completed in an enormous clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. JWST will now go through a series of rigorous tests, including shaking and noise tests to simulate launch conditions, and cryogenic tests to make sure it can stand up to the frigid conditions of space. This telescope element of JWST includes the optical components and science instruments. After testing, the telescope will be affixed to a sunshield to prevent thermal heating and a spacecraft bus that contains the propulsion and communication systems to complete JWST. Launch is scheduled for October 2018. 
And my own archive article to celebrate the coming winter:

The winter Hexagon
The Winter Hexagon

Sunday, October 9, 2016

The sun still rises

One of the most common of natures phenomena is the sunrise, watched by millions of people throughout history, always pretty and never boring. The Bible mentions sunrise many times and I included several appropriate verses throughout the article.

Ecclesiastes 1:5  The sun still rises, and it still goes down, going wearily back to where it must start all over again.

During this time of year there is a small gap in the buildings surrounding me, which enables a clear view of the sunrise in the east. I cannot see the exact sunrise, as the Samaria mountains block the horizon, but I do manage to see a few minutes after it. The series of photos show how each day the sun moves southward (the movement is actually the Earth movement in its orbit).

Sunday 25-Sep-2016. There were plenty of clouds so seeing the sunrise location was impossible, however, the photos are still nice.

Sunrise 25/9/2016
Sunrise 25/9/2016
Sunrise 25/9/2016
Sunrise 25/9/2016
Genesis 32:31 (ASV) And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Penuel

Monday, September 26th. The hill's name is "Jabel Taruja" where an ancient tomb is located. The hill is about 36km from my location.
Sunrise 26/9/2016
Sunrise 26/9/2016
The palm tree, however, is just 400m from the camera
Sunrise 26/9/2016
Sunrise 26/9/2016
Jonah 4:8 (CEB) Then as the sun rose God provided a dry east wind

Birds are very active in the morning, so at some point they are likely to fly in front of the sun, making a nice photo.

Sunrise 26/9/2016
Sunrise 26/9/2016
Sunrise and a crow
Sunrise and a crow

Deuteronomy 33:2 (GNT) The Lord came from Mount Sinai; he rose like the sun over Edom

Tuesday 27/9/2016 - Notice the change in the sun's location.

Sunrise 27/9/2016
Sunrise 27/9/2016
Here is a video of the sunrise at six times speed:

and here are the last photos as the clouds "swallows" the sun.

Sunrise 27/9/2016
 Sunrise 27/9/2016
Judges 9:33 (KJV) And it shall be, that in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early,
2 Kings 3:22 (CJB) They rose early in the morning when the sun was shining on the water.

On Wednesday the sunrise is just to the left of the palm tree
Sunrise 28/9/2016
Sunrise 28/9/2016
2 Samuel 23:4 (NKJV) And he shall be like the light of the morning when the sun rises, A morning without clouds

But on Thursday 29/9 it is on the tree's right
Sunrise 29/9/2016
Sunrise 29/9/2016
And more birds

Sunrise 29/9/2016
Sunrise 29/9/2016
Malachi 4:2 (CJB) But to you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings

Friday 30/9/2016 and the sun continues moving further south.

Sunrise 30/9/2016
Sunrise 30/9/2016

זריחה כ"ז אלול תשע"ו 30/9/2016
Sunrise 30/9/2016
Psalm 104:22 (NKJV) When the sun rises, they gather together And lie down in their dens.

Sunday 2-Oct-2016 marked the last day of the Hebrew year 5776, and what a beautiful sunrise on this day

Sunrise 2/10/2016
Sunrise 2/10/2016
Malachi 1:11 (NKJV) For from the rising of the sun, even to its going down, My name shall be great among the Gentiles;

To summarize the article, here is a wider photo from 29/9/2016 with added arrows to mark the sunrise locations some days before and after. The changes are considerable.

Sunrise 29/9 with location on nearbydates marked
Sunrise 29/9 with location on nearby dates marked

The apparent movement of the sun in the sky is a combination of two movements: the Earth revolving around its axis is the daily motion of the sun in the sky from sunrise to sunset, and the yearly movement of Earth in its orbit around the sun causing small changes in the sun's location during the seasons. That small change is shown in the series above as every day the sunrise is in a slightly different place.